Understanding the Controversy: The 8(a) Program and the Federal Court Ruling

Business Insights

Understanding the Controversy: The 8(a) Program and the Federal Court Ruling

Aug 24, 2023 | Business Insights

The U.S. Small Business Administration’s (SBA) 8(a) program, established to support and foster growth among socially and economically disadvantaged businesses, has found itself in the eye of a storm. A recent ruling by the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee has reshaped how the SBA will approach its pivotal 8(a) program, particularly concerning the criteria of “socially disadvantaged.”

The Old Model: Automatic Presumption of Disadvantage

8(a) eligibility was previously based, in part, on whether the business owner identified as a racial or ethnic minority. The idea was simple: historic and systemic discrimination meant that these minority business owners started their ventures on an uneven playing field. By granting them this special access, the federal government aimed to balance the scales.

Under this model, there was a rebuttable presumption that members of certain racial or ethnic backgrounds were “socially disadvantaged;” e.g., Black Americans, Hispanic American, Native Americans, etc.

The Ultima Services Case

A recent ruling from the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee has led to the SBA temporarily suspending new 8(a) applications and will have an impact on the rebuttable presumption from the old system.

In Ultima Services, the plaintiff, a woman-owned small business, sued the USDA after the USDA declined to exercise options under the plaintiff’s contract, and instead awarded contracts to 8(a) companies. The plaintiff argued that the use of a “rebuttable presumption” to determine eligibility for the 8(a) program violated its constitutional right to equal protection.

District Court Judge Clifton Corker, in his ruling, agreed with the plaintiff, finding that the “rebuttable presumption” could not withstand strict scrutiny and did violate the plaintiff’s Fifth Amendment rights. Drawing parallels with a recent Supreme Court decision on affirmative action in college admissions, he emphasized that racially conscious government programs must have a “logical endpoint.” The crux of the ruling was clear: the SBA cannot assume that a business is socially and economically disadvantaged solely based on the owner’s race or ethnicity.


The ruling, while clear in its direction, opens up a Pandora’s box of questions for the SBA. The agency now faces a challenging task: to redefine the criteria for its 8(a) program in a way that aligns with the court’s ruling, while still achieving the program’s noble goal of uplifting disadvantaged businesses.

By placing a temporary hold on adding new applicants to its 8(a) program, the SBA is taking a moment to reassess and recalibrate.

In the end, the pressing question remains: how can the SBA ensure that the 8(a) program continues to serve its intended beneficiaries without falling afoul of legal and societal considerations? Only time will tell how this balance will be struck.

This is Part 1 in a Three-Part Series on the 8(a) Program Controversy.

If you have questions about the 8(a) program or other federal contract, reach out to Harrison Clinton at (703) 526-5587 or hclinton@beankinney.com.

This article is for informational purposes only and does not contain or convey legal advice. Consult a lawyer. Any views or opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and are not necessarily the views of any client.


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